Roman Legions

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Roman Legions

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THE ROMAN ARMY: A BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Roman Army Structure - Vindolanda Museum

Roman Legions
Roman Legions

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Legion, a military organization, originally the largest permanent organization in the armies of ancient Rome. Die App findet man zwar schon. Home H. Teil 2: AD Condition :: Very Good. Roman Legions 21, There are three Saturn Card Einloggen periods in Roman military history: an early era Coole Spiele Kostenlos Und Ohne Anmeldung which the phalanx formation was used. Main article: Roman military decorations and punishments. This post was generally appointed by the emperor, Free Live Stream Champions League a former Etoro Aktien Kaufen and held command for 3 or 4 years, although could serve for a much longer period. See List of Roman legions for a catalogue of known late republic, early Beste Forex Broker and late Empire legions, with dates in existence, emblem and locations of deployment. The Gallica helped Caesar carry out major campaigns against the republic, the highlights being the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. With each legion having Ludl De, legionaries usually supported by an equal number of auxiliary troops according to Tacitusthe total force available to a legion commander during the Pax Romana probably ranged from 11, downwards, with the more prestigious legions and those stationed on hostile borders or in restive provinces tending to have more auxiliaries. The Velites at the front, the Hastati as the front line of infantry, the Prinipes as the second line of infantry and the Triarii at the rear Casino Uk the formation. To this wage, a legionary on active campaign would hope to add the booty of war, Domino Spiel the bodies of Roman Legions enemies and as plunder from enemy settlements. The biggest engagement the legion encountered was in Galicia. There were fifteen maniples in each line Kostenlos Schpile consisting of eighty men commanded by a centurion. Additionally the wearing of bronze greaves on the shins set them apart from the rank and file. Wars and battles. Esel Spiele often than not, they played a decisive role in battles despite massive losses and the odds heavily stacked against them. The 12th Fulminata had a thunderbolt as its emblem. For example, the defeat of Vitellius in the Year of the Four Emperors was decided when the Danubian legions chose to support Vespasian. Mega JackpotGwynne Dyer.

Slaves could also be claimed from the prisoners of war and divided amongst the legion for later sale, which would bring in a sizeable supplement to their regular pay.

Later, under Caracalla , the praemia increased to 5, denarii. From BC onwards, each legion used an aquila eagle as its standard symbol.

The symbol was carried by an officer known as aquilifer , and its loss was considered to be a very serious embarrassment, and often led to the disbanding of the legion itself.

Normally, this was because any legion incapable of regaining its eagle in battle was so severely mauled that it was no longer effective in combat.

When Caesar's troops hesitated to leave their ships for fear of the Britons, the aquilifer of the tenth legion threw himself overboard and, carrying the eagle, advanced alone against the enemy.

His comrades, fearing disgrace, 'with one accord, leapt down from the ship' and were followed by troops from the other ships. With the birth of the Roman Empire, the legions created a bond with their leader, the emperor himself.

Each legion had another officer, called imaginifer , whose role was to carry a pike with the imago image, sculpture of the emperor as pontifex maximus.

Each legion, furthermore, had a vexillifer who carried a vexillum or signum , with the legion name and emblem depicted on it, unique to the legion.

It was common for a legion to detach some sub-units from the main camp to strengthen other corps. In these cases, the detached subunits carried only the vexillum, and not the aquila, and were called, therefore, vexillationes.

A miniature vexillum, mounted on a silver base, was sometimes awarded to officers as a recognition of their service upon retirement or reassignment.

Civilians could also be rewarded for their assistance to the Roman legions. In return for outstanding service, a citizen was given an arrow without a head.

This was considered a great honour and would bring the recipient much prestige. The military discipline of the legions was quite harsh.

Regulations were strictly enforced, and a broad array of punishments could be inflicted upon a legionary who broke them. Many legionaries became devotees in the cult of the minor goddess Disciplina , whose virtues of frugality, severity and loyalty were central to their code of conduct and way of life.

Montesquieu wrote that "the main reason for the Romans becoming masters of the world was that, having fought successively against all peoples, they always gave up their own practices as soon as they found better ones.

Examples of ideas that were copied and adapted include weapons like the gladius Iberians and warship design cf. Carthaginians' quinquereme , as well as military units, such as heavy mounted cavalry and mounted archers Parthians and Numidians.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Roman legion disambiguation. See also: List of Roman legions.

Ancient heavy infantry unit of 1, to 5, men. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Structural history. Impressed by their courage and loyalty, as well as the proficiency that the hastily assembled legion had shown, Julius would use it later in the Gallic Wars.

The biggest engagement the legion encountered was in Galicia. As it was instrumental and the decisive factor for victory, the legion had earned its fame and glory battling under the banner of the bull, personally headed by Julius himself into battle.

Sadly, the legion had a shameful defeat and disbanding in the civil war that followed with Julius versus Pompey.

In one battle, they were told to retreat by Julius, fearing they might be destroyed. But, this proved fatal, as this was the first time the legion had retreated at all, the rest of the army routed, causing the legion itself to be routed as well.

In an article estimating population size in ancient Rome, Lorne H. Ward comments that in the early, close-to-annual border skirmishes, only the number of men in half a conventional legion might be deployed.

The Roman armies exercitus were composed mainly of Roman legions from the time of the legendary reforms of King Servius Tullius [also see Mommsen], according to ancient historians Cary and Scullard.

The name for the legions comes from the word for the levy legio from a Latin verb for 'to choose' [ legere ] that was made on the basis of wealth, in the new tribes Tullius is also supposed to have created.

Each legion was to have 60 centuries of infantry. For example, Cretan archers and Numidian javelin throwers. Additionally, when Augustus established the auxiliaries in around 30 BCE, the Roman cavalry was replaced with auxiliary cavalry from the provinces.

The cohorts were a flexible system which could be deployed in numerous ways. However, the preferred deployment was to have a center of two legions which were flanked with auxiliary infantry.

This was then supported by cavalry on the flanks. This was used at the Battle of Watling Street, where Rome won the defining battle against Boudicca despite being heavily outnumbered.

The Roman legion could change to accommodate for factors such as terrain, enemy, and weather. Vegetius wrote of various formations used by the Roman army.

They did have very fine dyed cloaks of various colors to signify rank. They generally wore a muscled cuirass and used a parazonium instead of a gladius; both described below.

The muscled cuirass was a bronze chest piece made in two pieces, one for the front and one for the back, and buckled together at the sides.

These were well decorated with animal, mythological and chest muscle designs. The more ornate sword carried by officers, the hilt of which could be in the form of an eagle head, or lobed.

It can be slung on a narrow shoulder baldric but is more often simply cradled in the left arm, and the fingers of the left hand can be forked over the lobed pommel.

Straps that hung off the shoulders and waist and covering the upper arms and legs, were made of leather. They were implemented to protect the arms and legs, while conserving the use of metal.

Prior to the reforms of Marius in the late 2nd and early 1st century BC, the Republican Roman legion had a completely different organization than those of the Imperial period.

The Roman legion, like most organized armies throughout history, had a very distinguished awards system. Read about some of the known awards for both legionaries and officers here.

This comprehensive list details the various legions of the Roman Empire. It includes foundation information, permanent bases and notable events involving that particular legion.

Organization of the Roman Imperial Legion. In this landmark publication, Stephen Dando-Collins does what no other author has ever attempted to do: provide a complete history of every Imperial Roman legion.

Based on thirty years of meticulous research, he covers every legion of Rome in rich detail. Featuring more than maps, photographs, diagrams and battle plans, Legions of Rome is an essential read for ancient history enthusiasts, military history experts and general readers alike.

Related Pages. Republican Legion Prior to the reforms of Marius in the late 2nd and early 1st century BC, the Republican Roman legion had a completely different organization than those of the Imperial period.

This arrangement allowed for the possibility for the supply train to become temporarily detached from the main body of the legion, thus greatly increasing the army's speed when needed.

A typical legion of this period had 5, legionaries as well as a large number of camp followers, servants and slaves. Legions could contain as many as 6, fighting men when including the auxiliaries, although much later in Roman history the number was reduced to 1, to allow for greater mobility.

Numbers would also vary depending on casualties suffered during a campaign; Julius Caesar 's legions during his campaign in Gaul often only had around 3, men.

Tactics were not very different from the past, but their effectiveness was largely improved because of the professional training of the soldiers. A re-enactor, showing a Roman miles , 2nd century.

After the Marian reforms, and throughout the history of Rome's Late Republic, the legions played an important political role.

By the 1st century BC the threat of the legions under a demagogue was recognized. Governors were not allowed to leave their provinces with their legions.

When Julius Caesar broke this rule, leaving his province of Gaul and crossing the Rubicon into Italy, he precipitated a constitutional crisis.

This crisis and the civil wars which followed brought an end to the Republic and led to the foundation of the Empire under Augustus in 27 BC.

The Roman empire under Hadrian ruled —38 , showing the legions deployed in Generals, during the recent Republican civil wars, had formed their own legions and numbered them as they wished.

During this time, there was a high incidence of Gemina twin legions, where two legions were consolidated into a single organization and was later made official and put under a legatus and six duces.

At the end of the civil war against Mark Antony , Augustus was left with around fifty legions, with several double counts multiple Legio Xs for instance.

For political and economic reasons, Augustus reduced the number of legions to 28 which diminished to 25 after the Battle of Teutoburg Forest , in which 3 legions were completely destroyed by the Germanics.

Beside streamlining the army Augustus also regulated the soldiers' pay. At the same time, he greatly increased the number of auxiliaries to the point where they were equal in number to the legionaries.

He also created the Praetorian Guard along with a permanent navy where served the liberti , or freed slaves.

Augustus' military policies proved sound and cost effective, and were generally followed by his successors. These emperors would carefully add new legions, as circumstances required or permitted, until the strength of the standing army stood at around 30 legions hence the wry remark of the philosopher Favorinus that It is ill arguing with the master of 30 legions.

With each legion having 5, legionaries usually supported by an equal number of auxiliary troops, the total force available to a legion commander during the Pax Romana probably ranged from 11, downwards, with the more prestigious legions and those stationed on hostile borders or in restive provinces tending to have more auxiliaries.

Some legions may have even been reinforced at times with units making the associated force near 15,—16, or about the size of a modern division.

Throughout the imperial era, the legions played an important political role. Their actions could secure the empire for a usurper or take it away.

For example, the defeat of Vitellius in the Year of the Four Emperors was decided when the Danubian legions chose to support Vespasian.

In the empire, the legion was standardized, with symbols and an individual history where men were proud to serve. The legion was commanded by a legatus or legate.

The border limitanei units were to occupy the limes , the structured border fortifications, and were formed by professional soldiers with an inferior training.

The field units were to stay well behind the border, and to move quickly where they were needed, with both offensive and defensive roles.

Field units were formed by elite soldiers with high-level training and weapons. They were further divided into:. These units usually numbered between and 2, soldiers and some of them kept their original numbering schemes.

The primary source for the legions of this era is the Notitia Dignitatum , a late 4th-century document containing all the civil and military offices of both halves of the Roman Empire revised in c.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. Structural history. Army Unit types and ranks Decorations and punishments Legions.

Auxilia Generals. Fleets Admirals. Campaign history. Wars and battles. Technological history.

Organization of the Roman Imperial Legion In the Roman army, a full strength legion was officially made up of 6, men, but typically all legions were organized at under strength and generally consisted of approximately 5, fighting men including officers. Highly regarded and one of the longest lasting legions was Legio III. This legion is debated for some inconsistencies for their appearance in history. The legion itself was founded by Mark Anthony in 36 B.C., yet there was a Legio III Gallica, Cyrenaica and Augusta. Until the Marian reforms of BC, the Republican legions were formed by compulsory levy of Roman citizens (who met a minimum property qualification) and raised whenever it was necessary. Usually they were authorized by the Roman Senate, and were later disbanded. Main articles: Roman army, Imperial Roman army, and Roman legion When Augustus became sole ruler in 31 BC, he disbanded about half of the over 50 legions then in existence. The remaining 28 legions became the core of the early Imperial army of the Principate (27 BC – AD ), most lasting over three centuries. Roman legions formed the largest units in the Roman army. In the early days of the republic, each legion consisted of around 3, well-trained men. This number was later expanded to up to 5, men in each legion during the imperial era. A typical Roman legion would have 10 cohorts (about 5, men).
Roman Legions
Roman Legions
Roman Legions Eine römische Legion war ein selbstständig operierender militärischer Großverband im Römischen Reich, der meist aus 30Soldaten schwerer Infanterie und einer kleinen Abteilung Legionsreiterei mit etwa Mann bestand. Die folgenden römischen Legionen sind bekannt, haben aber nicht alle zur gleichen Zeit Dieser Name kann auf eine Auszeichnung der Legion (pia fidelis) für Leistungen Yann Le Bohec (Hrsg.): Les legions à Rome sous le haut-​empire. Pollard, N: Complete Roman Legions | Pollard, Nigel, Berry, Joanne | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf​. The legions of Rome were among the greatest fighting forces in history. Foralmost half a millennium they secured the known world under the power ofthe​. 49 rows · The Roman legions were the fighting force which allowed Rome’s territories to expand . In the Roman army, a full strength legion was officially made up of 6, men, but typically all legions were organized at under strength and generally consisted of . 9/23/ · Increasing Number of Legions. When the Roman Republic started, with two consuls as leaders, each consul had command over two legions. These were numbered I-IV. The number of men, organization and selection methods changed over time. The tenth (X) was Julius Caesar's famous legion. It was also named Legio X Equestris.

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